Network of scientific cooperation in 2005–2009 and 2010–2016

Along with geographical places, spatial flows are increasingly important. Manuel Castells argues that instead of the historically developed geographical approach (“space of place”), actual developments call for a “space of flows” approach. Nevertheless, the global change in the international economy is uneven, so geographical differentiation is much greater than ever . A complex spatial structure is on the rise, which Dicken refers to as “a mosaic of unevenness in a continuous state of flux”. Therefore, the global economy is much more of a multipolar system. With the rediscovery of space, international integrations and subnational, regional levels (regional and local economy) are increasingly important alongside the level of nations.

Knowledge network hubs during educational and scientific cooperation
Which is the more important trading partner for the various countries: China or the United States?